Bufonidae

    This family is comprised of more than 380 species worldwide.  Toads are characterized by having dry and warty skin comprised of several granular glands.  Large paratoid glands located on the back of the head behind the eyes are typical.  Some toads, such as the atelopids have bright aposematic colors that give warning to their potential skin toxins.  Most toads are terrestrial however, there are some exceptions.  Pedostibes hoseii from Asia is arboreal, while some such as Nectophrynoides of Africa are at home in an aquatic setting.
    Bufonids are unique among anurans in having a Bidder's organ.  This organ is merely a rudimentary ovary found on the end of the male's testes and it's exact function is unknown.  Copulation is carried out via external fertilization and axillary amplexus.  The modes of reproduction carried out among bufonids almost span the entire spectrum of anuran reproduction.  Oviparity, direct development, free swimming larvae, and live birth have all been documented from this group of amphibians.